BACTERIA THAT CAUSED RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE
Juliantina Rachmawaty, Farida
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Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHO) is a disease of the heart as a result of residual symptoms (sequelae} of Rheumatic Fever (RF), which marked the occurrence of heart valve defects. Rheumatic fever is an autoimmune disease that attacks the multi system due to infection of Streptococcus group A a-hemolyticus of the pharynx (pharyngitis). These bacteria usually attack children and young adults. Rheumatic fever causes inflammation that usually occurs in the heart, skin and connective tissue. In endemic areas, 3% of patients with pharyngitis by Streptococcus develop rheumatic fever within 2-3 weeks after the infection of the upper respiratory tract. Approximately 40-60% of patients experience acute rheumatic fever that develops into Rheumatic Heart Disease. The bacteria are believed as Streptococcus a-hemolyticus group A. This bacterium is a gram-positive bacteria, cocci shaped with the trademark arranged like a chain on microscopic examination. The length of the chain is highly variable and influenced by environmental factors. The chain will be longer in liquid medium rather than in solid medium. The bacteria can do hemolysis to the blood perfectly so that the seed so that the blood look like a clear area around the colony. Protein M, virulence factors found in the cell walls of Streptococcus group A a-hemolyticus, has similarities with the structural protein in the myocardium, heart valves, synovial, skin and sub thalamic that causes cross-reactions.