Ceramic membrane based on TiO2-modified kaolinite as a low cost material for water filtration
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Ceramic membranes based on TiO2-kaolinite have been prepared using natural kaolinite, and their utilization in water filtration has been examined. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of TiO2 content on the physicochemical character and filtration efficiency of a ceramic membrane using contents of 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 wt.% Ti. The characterization of the ceramic membrane with varied Ti contents was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, specific surface area analysis and electron microscope investigation, while filtration capabilitywas evaluated by the analysis of Fe,Mn,NO 3 -chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), total dissolved solid (TDS) and bacteria reduction within the reverse filtration process. It was found that the addition of TiO2 affects the porous formation of the ceramic membrane. From the operational parameter, it was also concluded that themembrane pore influence on thewater quality is shown by Fe,Mn, NO3-and bacteria reduction, while COD, TSS and TDS are not significantly affected. The analysis of the membrane fouling mechanism shows that the distribution of pores in the membrane has a significant influence on the filtration efficiency of the membrane.