Unifikasi Penanggalan Global Islam: (Analisis Usul Fikih dalam Kontekstualisasi Nas-nas Hisab dan Rukyat)
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In modern times, the development of astronomy growing rapidly, in line with the rapid development of many of the issues that are emerging as a new challenge. The issue was actually already appeared in 15 centuries ago. The issue in the Islamic calendar has long been debated due to differences in the initial determination of whether it is the beginning of lunar month of Ramadan, Shawwal, and Dhul-Hijjah or Arafat, but that is quite a global is the day of Arafah. From the above problems are formulated that, what exactly is the problem and how the unification of the Islamic calendar reckoning expert response and astronomer in the unification efforts of the Muslim calendar. Those problems, require a proper way which can be obtained results have contributed to the problems faced by Muslims in the modern world. The method used in solving the above problems is the first, the method bayani or textual analysis is a description of a text sharia regarding a case in terms of the text so that detailed or less detailed is less clear so clear. Namely meanings intended by a command or a prohibition in the text by using interpretation. Second, the method of causation is the method of the invention sharia law in the event that no Islamic text directly related to the case and necessary changes to the law so that it can find the new law. Third, taufiki method is the method of finding a legal provision of cracks texts are born with one another seem contradictory that need to be synchronized in order to drawn a clear law. This dissertation research aims to explore the root causes of iNability to perform the unification of the Islamic calendar despite the centuries, also attempts to analyze the arguments of the jurist or jurists and experts in astronomy in response to the Islamic calendar unification efforts and solutions to the problem of determining the beginning of the month Lunar especially the day of Arafah and contribute concretely to the Islamic calendar unification efforts by considering the theory used by jurists and experts in astronomy. This dissertation study ultimately concluded that the issue of unification or unification of the Islamic calendar is not separated by natural factors can not be denied that require mankind to turn to in order to understand the passage reckoning reckoning rukyat are interpretative and totality in understanding the principles of reckoning because to achieve the necessary global Islamic calendar hisab not rukyat. Because during the astronomer and jurists still patchy accept the concept of reckoning.